Ncert Geography PDF (Land & People Part-II)
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Topics Include In Ncert Geography PDF (Land & People- Part-II)
I. The Land
- North-East India: Structural Framework
- Relief Features of North-East India
- The Drainage System of North-East India
- Weather and Climate of North-East India
- Natural Hazards in the North-East Region of India
- The Resource Endowment of North-East India
- Natural Vegetation: Forests and Grasslands of North-East India
II. The People
- Early Colonisation of North-East India
- People of North-East India
- Population of the North-Eastern States of India
- Migration and Its Impact on the Society and the Economy of North-East India
- Rural Settlements in North-East India
- Urbanisation and Urban Landscape in North-East India
Ncert Geography PDF (Land & People- Part-II)
I. The Land
North-East India: Structural Framework
Geologically, North-East India presents a stratigraphic sequence which ranges from pre-Cambrian to Quaternary with huge hiatuses in between. The oldest geological formation of the region is represented by the pre-Cambrian gneissic complex of Meghalaya plateau, a craton, and the Karbi-Anglong plateau, both of which are parts of the old Gondwanaland. The Himalayas, occupying the northern border of the region, ranging in height from 1,500 to 7,000 m ASL consist of formations ranging in age from Protozoic to early Palaeozoic in age. These consist of low-grade metamorphics in the southern section to high-grade schists towards the crest of the mountains. The foot zone of the Himalayas is formed by the Tertiary rocks, largely Mio-Pliocene deposits of post-orogenic phase. The rest of the region is formed by Tertiary rocks with different marine facies, ranging in age from Eocene to Pliocene. The movement of the Indian plate to the north as well as to the north-east and east has caused a number of thrusts. The Himalayan Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the Naga–Disang thrust separate the Himalayas and the eastern hilly region from Brahmaputra valley.
Relief Features of North-East India
North-East India, occupying the extreme North-East corner of the country, is largely a mountainous territory with two-thirds of its area occupied by hilly and mountainous terrain. It is like an amphitheatre, surrounded by the Himalayan ranges on the north, the Indo-Myanmar peripheral chain of hills on the east, and the hills of Mizoram and Tripura on the south and opening out to the west in the valleys of the river Brahmaputra and Barak. The region presents an enormous amplitude of relief, with heights ranging from 50 m ASL in Brahmaputra valley to 7,000 m ASL in the Himalayan borderland. The eastern hilly region, characterised by a series of parallel and subparallel north–south-trending ridges and valleys, lies on the Indo-Myanmar plate boundary on the east and is separated from Brahmaputra valley by Naga–Disang thrust on the west. The north–south alignment of low hills continues in Mizoram, lying on the Myanmar border, and in the state of Tripura, which shares its international border with Bangladesh. The western part of Tripura is a plain, drained by the west-flowing streams that join the river Meghna in Bangladesh to find their way to the Bay of Bengal. The region is seismically active, and the plains of Assam suffer frequent and sometimes most intense floods that cause huge loss of life and property.
II The People
Early Colonisation of North-East India
The earliest signs of human occupance in the North-East region are generally believed to have occurred during the Neolithic or at the earliest, mid-Palaeolithic times. The widespread occurrence of Megaliths in the region suggests a continuation of human culture for millennia. Whether these very early settlers evolved into successive generations of proto- and early historic human societies is a difficult question. The present distribution of different racial and linguistic groups leads one to believe that the earliest colonisers of this region were the Mongoloid people. On the basis of language, three distinct groups occupying three distinct regions can be identified. The Mongoloid people, speaking Tibeto-Burman language, were perhaps the first group to arrive from Tibet or adjacent areas, followed by people of eastern peripheral mountains, including the Nagas who spilled over from the Burmese highland. The Austric or Austro-Asiatic group, represented by the Khasis-Syntengs, is like an island in Bodo speaking sea of humanity. By all accounts, Bodos and Bodo-speaking people were one of the first to colonise Assam, away from the flood plain of Brahmaputra.
People of North-East India
The population of North-East India is formed of several racial stocks, principally, the Mongoloids, the Indo-Aryans, the Australoids or Austric and the Dravidians, the last being a very minor group represented by some immigrant population. While the original settlers were the Mongoloids, the Indo-Aryan and other groups arrived later. There is undoubtedly a dominance of Mongoloid element in the population of North-East India. Besides the racial differences, there is a tribal–nontribal duality recognised by the Constitution of India to secure certain benefits to the tribal community, to enable them to catch up with the rest of the society, in educational attainment and the level of living. Most of the tribes or tribal communities are concentrated in the hilly states of Arunachal Pradesh; Nagaland; Manipur; Mizoram, on Myanmar border; and Meghalaya, sandwiched between Assam and Bangladesh. While the tribes of Arunachal migrated to this region at a very early date, the arrival of the Nagas, Kukis and Mizos in their present habitat is relatively recent. Most of the indigenous people of North-East India have embraced Christianity, transforming the social ethos and cultural practices of the Nagas, the Mizos, the Khasi and the Garos. The Bodos, the largest tribal group of the region and largely confined to Assam, have adopted Hinduism and are known by different names like Bodos, Kacharis and Mechs. Some who came under the influence of the Royal Koch dynasty call themselves ‘Rajbanshis’, meaning people having royal lineage. The Kukis of Manipur and Tripurs of Tripura are other important tribal groups.
And Many More….
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